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John the Baptist Begins His Ministry

1Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene,   
   2Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.   Luke 3:1-2










779 A.U.C;  A.M. 4030;  A.D. 26

3:1-6 1:2-6 3:1-6





Quotes & Notes on:    Luke 3:1-2

  • John Wesley's Notes:
    The fifteenth year of Tiberius-Reckoning from the time when Angustus made him his colleague in the empire.

    Herod being tetrarch of Galilee-The dominions of Herod the Great were, after his death, divided into four parts or tetrarchies. This Herod his son was tetrarch of Galilee, reigning over that fourth part of his dominions. His brother reigned over two other fourth parts, the region of Iturea, and that of Trachonitis (that tract of land on the other side Jordan, which had formerly belonged to the tribe of Manasseh.)

    And Lysanias (probably descended from a prince of that name, who was some years before governor of that country) was tetrarch of the remaining part of Abilene, which was a large city of Syria, whose territories reached to Lebanon and Damascus, and contained great numbers of Jews. Mt 3:1; Mr 1:1.

    Annas being high priest, and Caiaphas-There could be but one high priest, strictly speaking, at once. Annas was the high priest at that time, and Caiaphas his sagan or deputy

  • Treasury of Scripture Knowledge:

    * A.M. 4030. A.D. 26.
    * Tiberius Cesar. Lu 2:1
    * Pontius Pilate. Lu 23:1-4,24; Ge 49:10; Ac 4:27; 23:26; 24:27; 26:30
    * Herod. Lu 3:19; 9:7; 23:6-11
    * his. Mt 14:3; Mr 6:17
    * Ituraea.

    Ituraea was a province of Syria east of Jordan, now called Djedour, according to Burckhardt, and comprising all the flat country south of Djebel Kessoue as far as Nowa, east of Djebel el Sheikh, or mount Hermon, and west of the Hadj road.  Trachonitis, according to Strabo and Ptolemy, comprehended all the uneven country on the east of Auranitis, now Haouran, from near Damascus to Bozra, now called El Ledja and Djebel Haouran. Abilene was a district in the valley of Lebanon, so called from Abila its chief town, eighteen miles N. of Damascus, according to Antoninus.

    * Annas. Joh 11:49-51; 18:13,14,24; Ac 4:6
    * the word. Lu 1:59-63; Jer 1:2; 2:1; Eze 1:3; Ho 1:1,2; Jon 1:1; Mic 1:1; Zep 1:1
    * in. Lu 1:80; Isa 40:3; Mt 3:1; 11:7; Mr 1:3; Joh 1:23

  • Adam Clarke's Commentary:

    Fifteenth year] This was the fifteenth of his principality and thirteenth of his monarchy: for he was two years joint emperor, previously to the death of Augustus.

    Tiberius Caesar] This emperor succeeded Augustus, in whose reign Christ was born. He began his reign August 19, A.D. 14, reigned twenty-three years, and died March 16, A.D. 37, aged seventy eight years. He was a most infamous character. During the latter part of his reign especially, he did all the mischief he possibly could; and that his tyranny might not end with his life, he chose Caius Caligula for his successor, merely on account of his bad qualities; and of whom he was accustomed to say, This young prince will be a SERPENT to the Roman people, and a PHAETHON to the rest of mankind.

    Herod] This was Herod Antipas, the son of Herod the Great who murdered the innocents. It was the same Herod who beheaded John Baptist, and to whom our Lord was sent by Pilate. See the account of the Herod family in the notes on Mt 2:1.

    Iturea and Trachonitis] Two provinces of Syria, on the confines of Judea.

    Abilene] Another province of Syria, which had its name from Abila, its chief city.

    These estates were left to Herod Antipas and his brother Philip by the will of their father, Herod the Great; and were confirmed to them by the decree of Augustus.

    That Philip was tetrarch of Trachonitis, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, we are assured by Josephus, who says that Philip the brother of Herod died in the twentieth year of Tiberius, after he had governed Trachonitis, Batanea, and Gaulonitis thirty-seven years. Antiq. b. xviii. c. 5, s. 6. And Herod continued tetrarch of Galilee till he was removed by Caligula, the successor of Tiberius. Antiq. b. xviii. c. 8, s. 2.

    That Lysanius was tetrarch of Abilene is also evident from Josephus. He continued in this government till the Emperor Claudius took it from him, A.D. 42, and made a present of it to Agrippa. See Antiq. b. xix. c. 5, s. 1.

    Tetrarch signifies the ruler of the fourth part of a country. See ACC for Mt 14:1.

    Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests] Caiaphas was the son-in-law of Annas or Ananias, and it is supposed that they exercised the high priest's office by turns. It is likely that Annas only was considered as high priest; and that Caiaphas was what the Hebrews termed cohen mishneh, or sagan cohanim, the high priest's deputy, or ruler of the temple. See ACC for Mt 2:4, and see ACC for Joh 18:13.

    The facts which St. Luke mentions here tend much to confirm the truth of the evangelical history. Christianity differs widely from philosophic system; it is founded in the goodness and authority of God; and attested by historic facts. It differs also from popular tradition, which either has had no pure origin, or which is lost in unknown or fabulous antiquity. It differs also from pagan and Mohammedan revelations, which were fabricated in a corner, and had no witnesses. In the above verses we find the persons, the places, and the times marked with the utmost exactness. It was under the first Caesars that the preaching of the Gospel took place; and in their time, the facts on which the whole of Christianity is founded made their appearance: an age the most enlightened, and best known from the multitude of its historic records. It was in Judea, where every thing that professed to come from God was scrutinized with the most exact and unmerciful criticism. In writing the history of Christianity, the evangelists appeal to certain facts which were publicly transacted in such places, under the government and inspection of such and such persons, and in such particular times. A thousand persons could have confronted the falsehood, had it been one! These appeals are made-a challenge is offered to the Roman government, and to the Jewish rulers and people-a new religion has been introduced in such a place, at such a time-this has been accompanied with such and such facts and miracles! Who can disprove this? All are silent. None appears to offer even an objection. The cause of infidelity and irreligion is at stake! If these facts cannot be disproved, the religion of Christ must triumph. None appears because none could appear. Now let it be observed, that the persons of that time, only, could confute these things had they been false; they never attempted it; therefore these facts are absolute and incontrovertible truths: this conclusion is necessary. Shall a man then give up his faith in such attested facts as these, because, more than a thousand years after, an infidel creeps out, and ventures publicly to sneer at what his iniquitous soul hopes is not true!

    The word of God came unto John] That is, the Holy Spirit that revealed to him this doctrine of salvation. This came upon him in the desert, where he was living in such a state of austerity as gave him full right to preach all the rigours of penitence to others. Thus we find that the first preachers, historians, and followers of the doctrines of the Gospel were men eminent for the austerity of their lives, the simplicity of their manners, and the sanctity of their conduct; they were authorized by God, and filled with the most precious gifts of his Spirit. And what are the apostles which the new philosophy sends us? Philosophers full of themselves, not guided by the love of truth or wisdom, but ever seeking their own glory; in constant hostility among themselves, because of their separate pretensions to particular discoveries, of the honour of which they would almost as soon lose life as be deprived. Who are they? Men of a mortified life and unblamable conversation? No-they are poets and poetasters; composers of romances, novels, intrigues, farces, comedies, &c., full of extravagance and impurity. They are pretended moralists that preach up pleasure and sensual gratification, and dissolve, as far as they can, the sacred and civil ties that unite and support society. They are men whose guilt is heightened by their assuming the sacred name of philosophers, and dignifying their impure system with a name at which Philosophy herself blushes and bleeds.

  • Family Bible Notes:

     Tiberius Cesar; the Roman emperor who succeeded Augustus. Herod; Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great. Tetrarch; literally, ruler of a fourth part. Iturea; a region of country east of the Jordan. Trachonitis; a country north of Iturea, towards Damascus. Abilene; this lay west of Damascus and north of Galilee.

     High-priests; Annas had been high-priest, and was succeeded by his son-in-law Caiaphas. Both were still living and were called high-priests, though but one them officiated. Persons who spend the early part of life in retirement from the noise and bustle of the world, are often preparing for great usefulness. In due time, God calls them to public stations, and to the discharge of duties of extensive and lasting benefit to mankind.

  • 1599 Geneva Bible Notes:
     John comes at the time foretold by the prophets and lays the foundation of the gospel which is exhibited unto us, setting forth the true observing of the law and free mercy in Christ, which comes after John, using also baptism which is the outward sign both of regeneration and also forgiveness of sins.

    Josephus calls him Ananus.

  • People's New Testament Commentary:

     In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar. Tiberius, the second Roman emperor, was the step-son and successor of Augustus Caesar. See PNTC for Lu 2:1. Tiberius was raised to the throne A.U.C. 764 (after the founding of Rome), and the fifteenth year would be A.U.C. 779. Counting back thirty years from this, brings us to A.U.C. 749, which is about four years earlier than the common date of the birth of Jesus and before the death of Herod the king. See PNTC for Mt 2:1.

    Pilate being governor of Judea. Archelaus, the son of "Herod the king," was deposed after ten years of rule, and Judea made a province under the rule of a Roman governor. Pontius Pilate was the fifth of these. [See PNTC for Mt 27:2.]

    Herod being tetrarch of Galilee. See PNTC for Mt 2:1, on the Herods. It was this Herod, Herod Antipas, who murdered John the Baptist [Mr 6:16; Lu 9:9].

    His brother Philip. This was not the husband of Herodias, but another brother Philip.

    Abilene. North of Palestine.

     In the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas. The Jews recognized but one high priest, who held his office for life, but Annas was removed from the office by the Roman governor, Pilate, and his son-in-law, Caiaphas, appointed in his place. Hence, both were called high priests at the same time.

    The word of God came unto John. He was called to begin his work.

  • Robertson's Word Pictures:
       Now in the fifteenth year (en etei de pentekaidekatôi). Tiberius Caesar was ruler in the provinces two years before Augustus Caesar died. Luke makes a six-fold attempt here to indicate the time when John the Baptist began his ministry. John revived the function of the prophet (Ecce Homo, p. 2) and it was a momentous event after centuries of prophetic silence. Luke begins with the Roman Emperor, then mentions Pontius Pilate Procurator of Judea, Herod Antipas Tetrarch of Galilee (and Perea), Philip, Tetrarch of Iturea and Trachonitis, Lysanias, Tetrarch of Abilene (all with the genitive absolute construction) and concludes with the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas (son-in-law and successor of Annas). The ancients did not have our modern system of chronology, the names of rulers as here being the common way. Objection has been made to the mention of Lysanias here because Josephus (Ant. XXVII. I) tells of a Lysanias who was King of Abila up to B.C. 36 as the one referred to by Luke with the wrong date. But an inscription has been found on the site of Abilene with mention of "Lysanias the tetrarch" and at the time to which Luke refers (see my Luke the Historian in the Light of Research, pp. 167). So Luke is vindicated again by the rocks.

    The Word of God came unto John (egeneto rhêma theou epi Iôanên). The great epoch marked by egeneto rather than ên. Rhêma theou is some particular utterance of God (Plummer), common in LXX, here alone in the N.T. Then John is introduced as the son of Zacharias according to Chapter 1. Matthew describes him as the Baptist, Mark as the Baptizer. No other Gospel mentions Zacharias. Mark begins his Gospel here, but Matthew and Luke have two Infancy Chapters before. Luke alone tells of the coming of the word to John. All three Synoptics locate him "in the wilderness" (en têi erêmôi) as here, Mr 1:4; Mt 3:1 (adding "of Judea").

  • Albert Barnes' Commentary:

    Now in the fifteenth year. This was the thirteenth year of his being sole emperor. He was two years joint emperor with Augustus, and Luke reckons from the time when he was admitted to share the empire with Augustus Caesar. See Lardner's Credibility, vol. i.

    Tiberius Caesar. Tiberius succeeded Augustus in the empire, and began his sole reign Aug. 19, A.D. 14. He was a most infamous character -- a scourge to the Roman people. He reigned twenty-three years, and was succeeded by Caius Caligula, whom he appointed his successor on account of his notorious wickedness, and that he might be, as he expressed it, a serpent to the Romans.

    Pontius Pilate. Herod the Great left his kingdom to three sons. See Barnes for Mt 2:22. To Archelaus he left Judea. Archelaus reigned nine years, when, on account of his crimes, he was banished into Vienne, and Judea was made a Roman province, and placed entirely under Roman governors or procurators, and became completely tributary to Rome. Pontius Pilate was the fifth governor that had been sent, and of course had been in Judea but a short time. See the chronological table at the end of the volume.

    Herod being tetrarch of Galilee. This was Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great, to whom Galilee had been left as his part of his father's kingdom. The word tetrarch properly denotes one who presides over a fourth part of a country or province; but it also came to be a general title, denoting one who reigned over any part--a, third, a half, &c. In this case Herod had a third of the dominions of his father, but he was called tetrarch. It was this Herod who imprisoned John the Baptist, and to whom our Saviour, when arraigned, was sent by Pilate.

    And his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea. Iturea was so called from Jetur, one of the sons of Ishmael, Ge 25:15; 1Ch 1:31. It was situated on the east side of the Jordan, and was taken from the descendants of Jetur by the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh, 1Ch 5:19.

    Region of Trachonitis. This region was also on the east of the Jordan, and extended northward to the district of Damascus and eastward to the deserts of Arabia. It was bounded on the west by Gaulonitis and south by the city of Bostra. Philip had obtained this region from the Romans on condition that he would extirpate the robbers.

    Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene. Abilene was so called from Abila, its chief city. It was situated in Syria, north-west of Damascus and south-east of Mount Lebanon, and was adjacent to Galilee.

     Annas {a} and Caiaphas being high-priests. There was, properly speaking, but one high-priest of the Jews; yet the name of high-priest continued to be given to those who had been in that office, and especially when they still possessed some civil office after they had left the high-priesthood. In this case it appears that Caiaphas was high-priest, and Annas had been, but had been dismissed from the office. It is highly probable that he still held an office under the Romans, and was perhaps president of the Sanhedrim. He is mentioned before Caiaphas because he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, and probably was the eldest, and had been longest in office. Instances similar to this may be found in Josephus.

    There is one remark to be made here about the manner in which the gospels are written. They have every mark of openness and honesty. An impostor does not mention names, and times, and places particularly. If he did, it would be easy to ascertain that he was an impostor. But the sacred writers describe objects and men as if they were perfectly familiar with them. They never appear to be guarding themselves. They speak of things most minutely. If, therefore, they had been impostors, it would have been easy to detect them. If, for example, John did not begin to preach in the fifteenth year of Tiberius--if Philip was not tetrarch of Iturea--if Pontius Pilate was not governor of Judea, how easy would it have been to detect them in falsehood! Yet it was never done. Nay, we have evidence of that age, in Josephus, that these descriptions are strictly true; and, consequently, the gospels must have been written by men who were personally acquainted with what they wrote, who were not impostors, and who were honest men. If they were honest, then the Christian religion is true.

    {a} Joh 11:49; 18:13; Ac 4:6


  • Jamieson-Faussett Brown:

      Here the curtain of the New Testament is, as it were, drawn up, and the greatest of all epochs of the Church commences. Even our Lord's own age (Lu 3:23) is determined by it [BENGEL]. No such elaborate chronological precision is to be found elsewhere in the New Testament, and it comes fitly from him who claims it as the peculiar recommendation of his Gospel, that he had "accurately traced down all things from the first" (Lu 1:3). Here, evidently, commences his proper narrative. Also see on JFB for Mt 3:1.

    the fifteenth year of Tiberius--reckoning from the period when he was admitted, three years before Augustus' death, to a share of the empire [WEBSTER and WILKINSON], about the end of the year of Rome 779, or about four years before the usual reckoning.

    Pilate ... governor of Judea--His proper title was Procurator, but with more than the usual powers of that office. After holding it about ten years he was ordered to Rome, to answer to charges brought against him, but ere he arrived Tiberius died (A.D. 35), and soon after Pilate committed suicide.

    Herod--(See on JFB for Mr 6:14).

    Philip--a different and very superior Philip to the one whose wife Herodias went to live with Herod Antipas. (See Mr 6:17).

    Iturea--to the northeast of Palestine; so called from Ishmael's son Itur or Jetur (1Ch 1:31), and anciently belonging to the half tribe of Manasseh.

    Trachonitis--farther to the northeast, between Iturea and Damascus; a rocky district, infested by robbers, and committed by Augustus to Herod the Great to keep in order.

    Abilene--still more to the northeast, so called from Abila, eighteen miles from Damascus [ROBINSON].


  • Spurgeon Commentary:

    (No comment on this verse)

  • William Burkitt's Notes:

    The two foregoing chapters give us an account of the birth of our Saviour Christ, and of John the Baptist. The evangelist now leaving the history of our blessed Saviour for eighteen years, namely till he was thirty years old, (the Holy Ghost having thought fit to conceal that part of our Saviour's private life from our knowledge,) he begins this chapter with a relation of the Baptist's ministry, acquainting us with the time when, and the place where, and the doctrine which, the Baptist taught.

    Observe 1. The time described when St. John began his public ministry, namely, when Tiberius was emperor, and Annas and Caiaphas high priests.

    Observe 2. In the fifteenth year of Tiberius, when the Jews were entirely under the power of the Romans, who set four governors over them, called Tetrarchs, so named from their ruling over a fourth part of the kingdom.

    From hence the Jews might have observed, had not prejudice blinded their eyes, that the sceptre being thus departed from Judah, according to Jacob's prophecy, Ge 49:10 Shiloh, or the Messiah was now come.

    Again, the time when St. John began his ministry was when Annas and Caiaphas were high priests. Under the law there were three sorts of ministers that attended the service of the temple, namely, priests, Levites, and Nethinims; over these the high priest was chief, who by God's command was to be the first-born of Aaron's family.

    But how came two high priests here, seeing God never appointed but one at a time?

    In answer to this, say some, the power and covetousness of the Romans put in high priests at pleasure to officiate for gain.

    Say others, the high priest was allowed his assistant or deputy who in case of his pollution and sickness, did officiate in his place.

    But that which we may profitably observe from hence, is this, the exactness and faithfulness of this historian, St. Luke, in relating the circumstances of our Saviour's nativity, and the Baptist's ministry. That the truth might evidently appear, he is exact in recording the time.

  • Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary:

    The scope and design of John's ministry were, to bring the people from their sins, and to their Saviour. He came preaching, not a sect, or party, but a profession; the sign or ceremony was washing with water. By the words here used John preached the necessity of repentance, in order to the remission of sins, and that the baptism of water was an outward sign of that inward cleansing and renewal of heart, which attend, or are the effects of true repentance, as well as a profession of it. Here is the fulfilling of the Scriptures, Isa 40:3, in the ministry of John. When way is made for the gospel into the heart, by taking down high thoughts, and bringing them into obedience to Christ, by levelling the soul, and removing all that hinders us in the way of Christ and his grace, then preparation is made to welcome the salvation of God. Here are general warnings and exhortations which John gave. The guilty, corrupted race of mankind is become a generation of vipers; hateful to God, and hating one another. There is no way of fleeing from the wrath to come, but by repentance; and by the change of our way the change of our mind must be shown. If we are not really holy, both in heart and life, our profession of religion and relation to God and his church, will stand us in no stead at all; the sorer will our destruction be, if we do not bring forth fruits meet for repentance. John the Baptist gave instructions to several sorts of persons. Those that profess and promise repentance, must show it by reformation, according to their places and conditions. The gospel requires mercy, not sacrifice; and its design is, to engage us to do all the good we can, and to be just to all men. And the same principle which leads men to forego unjust gain, leads to restore that which is gained by wrong. John tells the soldiers their duty. Men should be cautioned against the temptations of their employments. These answers declared the present duty of the inquirers, and at once formed a test of their sincerity. As none can or will accept Christ's salvation without true repentance, so the evidence and effects of this repentance are here marked out.

  • The Fourfold Gospel:

     Now in the fifteenth year of the reign. Tiberius Caesar, stepson of and successor to Augustus, began to reign as joint ruler with Augustus in August, A.U.C. 765 (A.D. 11). On August 19, 767, Augustus died and Tiberius became sole ruler. Luke counts from the beginning of the joint rule, and his fifteen years bring us to 779. In August, 779, Tiberius began his fifteenth year, and about December of that year Jesus would have completed his thirtieth year.

    Of Tiberius Caesar. He was born B.C. 41, died March 16, A.D. 37. As a citizen he distinguished himself as orator, soldier and public official. But as emperor he was slothful, self-indulgent, indescribably licentious, vindictive and cruel. He was a master of dissimulation and cunning, and was a veritable scourge to his people. But he still found flatterers even in Palestine, Caesarea Philippi, and the town Tiberias being named for him.

    Pontius Pilate. See mention of him in account of our Lord's trial.

    Being governor of Judaea. The province of Judaea was subdued by Pompey and brought under Roman control in B.C. 63. Its history from that date till the governorship of Pilate can be found in Josephus.

    And Herod. Also called Antipas. The ruler who murdered John the Baptist and who assisted at the trial of Jesus.

    Being tetrarch. This word means properly the ruler of a fourth part of a country, but was used loosely for any petty tributary prince.

    Of Galilee. This province lay north of Samaria, and measured about twenty-five miles from north to south, and twenty-seven miles from east to west. It was a rich and fertile country.

    His brother. Half-brother.

    Philip. He was distinguished by justice and moderation, the one decent man in the Herodian family. He married Salome, who obtained John the Baptist's head for a dance. He built Caesarea Philippi, and transformed Bethsaida Julius from a village to a city, and died there A.D. 44. After his death his domains became part of the Roman province of Syria.

    Tetrarch of the region of Ituraea. A district thirty miles long by twenty-five broad, lying north of Batanaea, east of Mt. Hermon, west of Trachonitis. It received its name from Jetur, son of Ishmael (Ge 25:15). Its Ishmaelite inhabitants were conquered by Aristobulus, king of Judaea, B.C. 100, and forced by him to accept the Jewish faith. They were marauders, and famous for the use of the bow.

    And Trachonitis. A district about twenty-two miles from north to south by fourteen from east to west. Its name means "rough" or "stony," and it amply deserves it. It lies between Ituraea and the desert, and has been infested with robbers from the earliest ages. It is called the Argob in the Old Testament (De 3:4,13,14; 1Ki 4:13; 2Ki 15:25), "an ocean of basaltic rock and boulders, tossed about in the wildest confusion, and intermingled with fissures and crevices in every direction."

    And Lysanias. Profane history gives us no account of this man. It tells of a Lysanias, king of Chalcis, under Mt. Lebanon, who was put to death by Mark Antony, B.C. 36, or sixty-odd years before this, and another who was tetrarch of Abilene in the reigns of Caligula and Claudius twenty years after this. He probably was son of the first and father of the second.

    Tetrarch of Abilene. The city of Abila (which comes from the word abel, meaning "meadow") is eighteen miles from Damascus and thirty-eight from Baalbec. The province laying about it is mentioned because it subsequently formed part of the Jewish territory, being given to Herod Agrippa I. by Emperor Claudius about A.D. 41.

     In the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas. Annas had been high priest 7-14 A.D., when he was deposed by the procurator, Gratus. Caiaphas was son-in-law of and successor to Annas. Luke gives both names, one as the rightful and the other as the acting high priest. Compare Ac 4:6. Gentile innovations had made sad havoc with the Jewish law as to this office. In the last one hundred and seven years of the temple's existence there were no less than twenty-eight high priests. Luke is the only one who fixes the time when Jesus began his ministry. He locates it by emperor and governor, tetrarch and high priest, as an event of world-wide importance, and of concern to all the kingdoms of men. He conceives of it as Paul did (Ac 26:26).

    The word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias. The divine commission which bade John enter his career as a prophet (Jer 1:2; Eze 6:1). Prophets gave temporary and limited manifestations of God's will (Heb 1:1,2). Jesus is the everlasting and unlimited manifestation of the divine purpose and of the very Godhead (Joh 14:9; 12:45; Col 1:15; Heb 1:3; 2Co 4:6).

    In the wilderness. The wilderness of Judaea is that almost uninhabitable mass of barren ridges extending the whole length of the Dead Sea, and a few miles further north. It is from five to ten miles wide.




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